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20 July 2010

Human skin tone (color) variability

Article Source: Wikipedia

The tone of human skin can vary from a dark brown to a nearly colorless pigmentation, which may appear reddish due to the blood in the skin. Europeans generally have lighter skin, hair, and eyes than any other group, although this is not always the case. Africans generally have darker skin, hair, and eyes, although this too is not universal. For practical purposes, such as exposure time for sun tanning, six skin types are distinguished following Fitzpatrick (1975), listed in order of decreasing lightness:[17]

type

also called

tanning behavior

hair and eye color

von Luschan scale

I

very light, or "nordic" or "celtic" [18]

Often burns, rarely tans.

Tends to have freckles, red, brown, auburn, chestnut, or blond hair, blue, brown, green or gray eyes.

1-5

II

light, or light-skinned European[18]

Usually burns, sometimes tans

Tends to have light or dark hair, blue, green, hazel, brown or gray eyes.

6-10

III

light intermediate, or dark-skinned European [18]

Rarely burns, usually tans.

Usually has brown hair and blue, green, hazel, brown, or, rarely, dark brown eyes.

11-15

IV

dark intermediate, also "Mediterranean" or "olive skin"[18]

Rarely burns, often tans.

Tends to have black to dark brown hair and blue, green, hazel, brown or dark brown eyes.

16-21

V

dark or "brown" type

Naturally brown skin

Black hair and brown or hazel eyes.

22-28

VI

very dark, or "black" type

Naturally black-brown skin

Black hair and dark brown eyes, with minor variations.

29-36


18 July 2010

Complete info on Glutathione

WHAT IS GLUTATHIONE?



Glutathione (GSH) is your body A.I.D. (A-antioxidant, I- immune system, D- detoxifier). It is a small protein molecule formed from the amino acids cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. It is produced normally by the body in response to today's environment such as pollution in the air we breath, water we drink, chemicals & pesticides in the food we eat that cause damages in our cells & system.

Glutathione is often referred to as Master Anti-oxidant in the body.

Small molecule made up of linked amino acids and anti-oxidant naturally produced in the body. It has been widely heralded for its importance for good health and long life. Glutathione in increased dose posts an remarkable good 'side effect' such as SKIN WHITENING".

Its skin whitening regimen has been widely used in Asia and has been reported to be the Asian Most Prescribed Oral Skin Whitener among the skin whitening products. And often referred to as bleaching pill, bleaching capsule, whitening pill or whitening capsule. There is no question at all because its already been proven that L-Glutathione is really effective in whitening the skin for it works by reducing the melanin formation safely. There are several L-Glutathione preparations in the market but not all can really guarantee a good result.

The greater the exposure to toxins, the faster the body uses up its supply glutathione. Without the protection of Glutathione, cells die at a faster rate, making people age quicker & putting them at risk for toxin induced diseases including cancer.

Glutathione is considered to be the most powerful, most versatile, and most important of the body's self-generated antioxidants. Among glutathione's many important properties are:

1. Is found in almost all living cells. The liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, and the lens and cornea, have the highest
concentrations in the body.
2. It is a powerful antioxidant and thus neutralizes free radicals and prevents their formation
3. Important role in immune function via white blood cell production and is one of the most potent anti-viral agents known
4. It is one of the strongest anti-cancer agents manufactured by the body,
5. Glutathione is able to reduce oxidized Vitamin C and Vitamin E back to their unoxidized state,
6. It is used by the liver to detoxify many toxins including formaldehyde, acetaminophen, benzpyrene and many other
compounds and plays a key role in Phase I and Phase II detoxification reactions
7. It is an antioxidant necessary for the protection of proteins; is involved in nucleic acid synthesis and plays a role in DNA
repair
8. It maintains the cellular redox potential
9. Glutathione levels decrease with age. It is involved in cellular differentiation and slows the aging process
10. Protects the integrity of red blood cells
11. Glutathione is involved in maintaining normal brain function

Uses of Glutathione

GOOD HEALTH
+ As your body's MASTER ANTIOXIDANT -because glutathione participates directly in the destruction of reactive oxygen
compounds. Glutathione destroys free radicals, is involved in the detoxification of foreign compounds and supports the
normal active functioning of the immune system.
+ Require in detoxifying nicotine
+ Body's defense against pollutants and ultraviolet radiation
+ Highest concentration of glutathione is found in the liver w/c is the principal organ involved in the detoxification and
elimination of toxic materials. Interestingly, glutathione also acts to reconstitutes vit C and E after they have been oxidized,
and therefore plays a determinant role in their function. (Convert fat-soluble substances into water-soluble GSH
conjugates, in order to facilitate their excretion). Its main purpose is to detoxify the liver of many harmful substances that
accumulate over the years but cannot be purged naturally. These toxins include alcohol, heavy metals such as mercury,
lead and cadmium and pesticides which glutathione extracts from the body so they can be expelled through urine or bile.

+ Plays an important role in cancer prevention and treatment.
+ ANTI-AGING CAPSULE by aiding in the breakdown of oxidized fats.
+ Increases sperm count for men with low sperm counts.
+ Low glutathione levels are found in immune compromised individuals, Neuro-degenerative diseases such as multiple
sclerosis, ALS, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, arteriosclerosis, male infertility, pregnancy complications, cataracts,
damage from many pharmaceutical drugs, cancer and poor survival rate for patients with AIDS.
+ High levels of Glutathione appear to protect against the dangers of cancer, heart disease, premature aging,
autoimmune disease and chronic illness.
+ Protects individual cells & tissues of arteries, brain, heart, immune cells, kidneys, lens of eyes, liver,
lungs and skin against oxidant damage.



WHITENS SKIN
Have you ever wondered how comes so many Black, Asian and Indian celebrities are all very light skinned? Have you wondered why early childhood photos of many top celebrities show a much darker skin color than they have now? Glutathione in INCREASED DOSE helps whiten skin by modifying conversion of eumelanine (dark/brown/yellow pigmentation) to phaeomelanin (reddish white pigmentation). This is the main reason whiter skin are produced. Most dermatologists in Asia uses and recommends Glutathione as a whitening capsule or bleaching pills that is were proven to be very safe and effective.
In Asia, Glutathione is mostly used as whitening and anti aging pill mostly used by celebrities and models. Recommended by dermatologist and skin care experts.

+ Dark spots remover
+ Prevents pimples and removes blemishes
+ Whitens the skin
+ Anti-aging and anti-wrinkles (delaying the sign of aging)
+ Makes skin stay supple, smooth, fresh and radiant
+ Treats skin ulceration
+ Enhance healing of wounds
+ Nourishes skin
Is Glutathione Safe?

Regarding the safety of glutathione in the liver, it is said that the levels of glutathione in the liver is critically linked to the liver's capacity to detoxify. This means that the higher the glutathione content, the greater the liver's capacity to detoxify harmful chemicals. Typically, when we are exposed to chemicals like alcohol which can damage the liver, the concentration of glutathione in the liver is substantially reduced. This reduction makes the liver susceptible to damage.

IS IT SAFE TO THOSE PERSONS WITH THYROID PROBLEMS?

YES.
Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with enhanced oxidative stress involving antioxidants.
Reschu, Helsel, et. Al.November, 2002

Has a direct relationship with free radical formation and inverse relationship with levels of erythrocute glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in human subjects.
Turkish Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Feb.,2001

TOXICITY
No toxicities have been reported or suspected as being associated with glutathione.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
None known, except for use during some forms of chemotherapy and radiation where antioxidants are contraindicated due to their inhibition of the free radical formation which is an integral part of the therapeutic mechanism.

INTERACTIONS
Nutrient affecting drug CISPLATIN
Nutrient affected by drug and affecting drug HALOPERIDOL

OVERDOSAGE
There have been no reports of glutathione overdosage in the literature.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Glutathione is available as a single ingredient dietary supplement or in combination products. Dosage ranges from 50 to 1000mg.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
Oral doses of up to 1000 milligrams daily are well tolerated. There are no reports of adverse reactions.

Other facts about Glutathione

Glutathione as a Detoxicant
Supplemental detoxicants become necessary as our environment becomes increasingly polluted. Our food and water sources are contaminated with chemicals. One of our main defenses against pollutants is glutathione, which is present in the liver in high concentrations. Glutathione acts as a detoxifying agent by combining with undesirable substances and ridding the body of them through urine and bile. It is important to note that unless the Colon, Liver and Blood are also detoxified, the benefits of Glutathione as a detoxicant may be minimized.

To Get a Little More Technical About Glutathione
Glutathione is a ubiquitous tripeptide molecule, consisting of three amino acids joined together. These are cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine - three of the twenty two amino acids which comprise the building blocks of all known proteins. In general, the amino-end of one amino acid combines with the acid-end of another to form a peptide bond with the elimination of water. Chains of amino acids are called proteins. The sequence of amino acids and the arrangement in space of each peptide bond defines some specific structural features of all proteins and olegopeptides (few amino acids in sequence) that relate to their function.

Functions of Glutathione
Enhancing the Immune System
Your bodies immune activity, involving unimpeded multiplication of lymphocytes and antibody production, requires maintenance of normal levels of glutathione inside the lymphocytes. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenger
Glutathione plays a central protective role against the damaging effects of bacteria, viruses, pollutants and free radicals. Regulator of Other Antioxidants
Without glutathione, other important antioxidants such as vitamins C and E cannot do their job adequately to protect your body against disease. A Detoxifying Agent
Another major function of glutathione is in the detoxification of foreign chemical compounds such as carcinogens and harmful metabolites.


Glutathione (Psychoneurobiology)
Free radicals and oxyradicals have been recognized by psychoneurobiologist as playing an important role in the development and progression of many of these disorders. The brain is particularly susceptible to free radical attack because it generates more oxidative-by-products per gram of tissue than any other organ. The brain's main antioxidant is glutathione- it's importance cannot be overstated. Oxidative stress and glutathione are important factors in such various disorders as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, schizophrenia, Down syndrome and other pathologies.

DISORDERS OF THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT ARE LINKED TO OXIDATIVE STRESS
Brain Injury Neurodegenerative Disease Others
Brain Injury Parkinson's Disease Schizophrenia
Trauma Alzheimer's Dementia Down Syndrome
Stroke Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Tardive Dyskinesia
Ischemia Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) Sleep Deprivation
Toxicity of lead, mercury, etc. Lipofuscinosis (Batten's Disease) Huntington's Chorea

World renowned Glutathione expert DR. GUSTAVO BOUNOUS MD FRCSC says it all : GLUTATHIONE THE BODY’S MOST POWERFUL HEALING AGENT ( click here for more infomation ) Glutathione is your body's master antioxidant and one of the most important cleansing and healing agents. The highest concentration of glutathione is found in the liver which is the principal organ involved in the detoxification and elimination of toxic materials. Glutathione also acts to reconstitute the antioxidant vitamins C and E after they have been oxidized, and therefore plays a key role in their function.

Glutathione is the "Life Extension Molecule"
High levels of glutathione appear to protect against the dangers of cancer, heart disease, premature aging, autoimmune diseases, and chronic illnesses. ( click here for more infomation ) Symptoms of glutathione deficiency may include coordination problems, generalized cell damage, mental disorders, various nervous system disorders, tremors, and twitching. Red cells are prone to burst, white blood cells decline in function, and nerve tissue degenerates. A deficiency of intracellular glutathione has been associated with a variety of conditions including AIDS, alcohol-induced liver disease and some forms of cancer. ( click here for more infomation ) Glutathione is a substance, the levels of which in our cells are predictive of how long we will live. There are very few other factors which are as predictive of our life expectancy as is our level of cellular glutathione. Glutathione has been called the "master antioxidant", and regulates the actions of lesser antioxidants such as vitamin C, and vitamin E within the body. "We literally cannot survive without this antioxidant," Earl Mindell, R.Ph., Ph.D. "What You Should Know about the Super Antioxidant Miracle" ( click here for more infomation ) "Without glutathione, other important antioxidants such as vitamins C and E cannot do their job adequately to protect your body against disease." Breakthrough in Cell Defense, Allan Somersall, Ph.D., M.D., and Gustavo Bounous, M.D. FRCS(C) "No other antioxidant is as important to overall health as glutathione. It is the regulator and regenerator of immune cells and the most valuable detoxifying agent in the human body. Low levels are associated with hepatic dysfunction, immune dysfunction, cardiac disease, premature aging, and death." The Immune System Cure, Lorna R. Vanderhaeghe & Patrick J.D. Bouic, Ph.D. Glutathione (L-gammaglutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a tri-peptide of the amino acids cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutathione is an antioxidant compound found in living animal and plant tissue. It takes up and gives off hydrogen and is important in cellular respiration. A deficiency of glutathione can cause hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells, leading to anemia) and oxidative stress. Glutathione is essential in intermediary metabolism as a donor of sulfhydryl groups which are essential for the detoxification of acetaminophen. [PDR Medical Dictionary. Spraycar. 1999] Selenium is a structural component of, and a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. A review article published in the Annals of Pharmacology stated that glutathione is important in DNA synthesis and repair, protein and prostaglandin synthesis, amino acid transport, detoxification of toxins and carcinogens, enhancement of the immune system, and protection from oxidation and enzyme activations." The Immune System Cure, Lorna R. Vanderhaeghe & Patrick J.D. Bouic, Ph.D. Research suggests that abnormally low glutathione levels may increase your risk for Heart Attack. Eric Topol, MD, New England Journal of Medicine. "Glutathione has potent anti-viral properties - if tissue and serum glutathione levels are significantly increased, the replication of most pathogens are slowed or stopped. Conversely, glutathione deficiency produces a pro-viral effect." Paul Cheney, M.D., Ph.D. and expert in the treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Transcribed from a workshop presentation on the clinical management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

* Lymphocytes, cells vital for effective immune function, depend on GSH for their proper function and replication.
IMMUNOLOGY 61: 503-508 1987
* As we age, there is a precipitous drop in GSH levels. Lower glutathione levels have been implicated in many diseases associated with aging.

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 47: 1021-28 1994
* Antioxidants are well documented to play vital roles in health maintenance and disease prevention. GSH is your cells' own major antioxidant.
Biochemical Pharmacology 47: 2113-2123 1994
* GSH plays a role in eliminating many carcinogens as well as maintaining immune function.
Cancer Letters 57: 91-94 1991

* Strong muscular activity, such as that experienced by athletes, generates oxyradicals [free radicals] leading to muscle fatigue and poorer performance. GSH neutralizes these radicals.
Sport Medicine 21: 213-238, 1996
* GSH detoxifies many pollutants, carcinogens, and poisons, including many in fuel exhaust and cigarette smoke. It retards damage from radiation such as seen with loss of the ozone.
Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 52: 711-780 1983

GSH's metabolic functions include :
+ Enhancement of Immune Function
+ Elimination of Toxins
+ Elimination of Carcinogens
+ Antioxidant Cell Protection
+ Protection against Ionizing Radiation
+ DNA Synthesis and Repair
+ Protein Synthesis
+ Prostaglandin Synthesis
+ Leukotriene Synthesis
+ Amino Acid Transport
+ Amino Acid Transport
+ Enzyme Activity and Regulation

OVERDOSAGE
There have been no reports of glutathione overdosage in the literature.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Glutathione is available as a single ingredient dietary supplement or in combination products. Dosage ranges from 50 to 600 milligrams daily.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
Oral doses of up to 600 milligrams per intake are well tolerated. There are no reports of adverse reactions.

OTHER SOURCES
Dietary glutathione is found in fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables, fish, and meat. Asparagus, avocado and walnuts are particularly rich dietary sources of Glutathione.

Glutathione: Systemic Protectant Against Oxidative and Free Radical Damage
Dedicated to the memory of Professor Daniel Mazia, my PhD mentor and a pioneer in cell biology
Parris M. Kidd, Ph.D.

Glutathione Deficiency in Liver Diseases GSH depletion has been suggested to represent an important contributory factor to liver injury, and to enhanced morbidity related to liver hypofunction. In one small study, subnormal plasma concentrations of GSH were observed in cirrhosis patients, independent of their diet.47 A larger study demonstrated a four- to eight-fold decrease in plasma GSH in 48 cirrhotic patients versus 18 healthy volunteers. A significant decrease in cysteine in severe cirrhosis also was observed. Altomare and collaborators measured liver GSH and GSSG in chronic alcoholics, in patients with nonalcoholic liver diseases (fatty liver, acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis), and control patients (admitted for uncomplicated abdominal procedures). They found GSH decreased in the alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease groups, compared with the control groups; GSSG was also significantly higher in these groups. The investigators postulated that decreased GSH and/or increased GSSG could have contributed to liver injury susceptibility and toxic risk in these patients, while altering fundamental cell functions such as protein synthesis, enzyme activities, transport processes, microtubular and other structural support, and secretion mechanisms. Other studies also have documented plasma and liver GSH decreases in patients with acute viral hepatitis, and in chronic cases of hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Deficiency of GSH caused by one toxin may render the liver more vulnerable to other toxins. One example is acetaminophen intake superimposed on the alcohol-damaged liver. In a group of chronic alcoholics with GSH deficiency, acetaminophen did not lower GSH unless gamma-glutamyl transferase (SGGT) was high to begin with. Those subjects with abnormally elevated SGGT manifested abnormally lowered plasma GSH after acetaminophen intake, and were therefore more predisposed to further liver damage from other toxic agents. Glutathione and Lung Diseases Being directly in the path of airborne materials, the lung tissue is particularly at risk from oxidative stressors such as cigarette smoke, atmospheric pollutants, and other inhaled environmental toxins. GSH and GSH-associated enzymes present in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract may be the first line of defense against such challenges. Sustained oxidative challenge to the lung results in depletion of GSH and other antioxidants from the lungs. GSH deficiencies have been documented in a number of pulmonary diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and neonatal lung damage. Patients with ARDS and sepsis have a deficiency of GSH in the ELF as compared with healthy subjects and a greater percentage of the total ELF glutathione is in the oxidized form (GSSG), indicating increased oxidative stress in the lower respiratory tract. When GSH was repleted in their ELF using intravenous N-acetylcysteine, patients in intensive care regained independent lung function and left the intensive care unit significantly faster. Airway inflammation in asthma also features increased generation of free radical oxidants. As earlier indicated from animal experiments, subjects with mild asthma seemingly have the capacity to adaptively increase their antioxidant defenses, as manifested in their alveolar GSH concentrations being significantly higher than healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, GSH concentrations in the ELF are a mere 25% of normal, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. Infants born prematurely at 25 weeks average gestational age were found to have significantly lower pulmonary GSH than did infants born at 40 weeks. Among infants born at 35 weeks, those with lower GSH levels in their ELF were found more susceptible to subsequent chronic lung disease. These findings suggest that poor lung GSH status at birth may predispose the infant to respiratory pathologies. Glutathione, Immunity, and HIV Disease As with other cell types, the proliferation, growth, and differentiation of immune cells is dependent on GSH. Both the T and the B lymphocytes require adequate levels of intracellular GSH to differentiate, and healthy humans with relatively low lymphocyte GSH were found to have significantly lower CD4 counts. Intracellular GSH is also required for the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation, for the activation of cytotoxic T "killer" cells and for many specific T-cell functions, including DNA synthesis for cell replication, as well as for the metabolism of interleukin-2 which is important for the mitogenic response. Experimental depletion of GSH inhibits immune cell functions, sometimes markedly and in a number of different experimental systems the intracellular GSH of lymphocytes was shown to determine the magnitude of immunological capacity.58 These and other findings indicate that intracellular GSH status plays a central role in the functioning of immune cells. In the auto-immune diseases of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and as seen in aging, T lymphocytes demonstrate depressed responsiveness to antigens and mitogens, perhaps because of insufficient IL-2 production (see reference 60 for a review). Patients with RA had low blood sulfhydryl (-SH) status as did patients with Type II diabetes or with ulcerative colitis. Chronic viral infections may trigger GSH depletion in circulating immune cells or GSH/GSSG imbalance. Patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus were found to have low GSH in their circulating monocytes. Monocyte GSH levels were abnormal in early HIV-1 disease then in patients with advanced disease the GSH levels normalized in monocytes but the GSH/GSSG ratio became abnormal. Significant decreases in the plasma levels of both cysteine and cystine also were documented in subjects with HIV-1 infection. Since cysteine is a rate-limiting precursor for GSH synthesis, an associated decrease of GSH in the lung ELF was highly suggestive of a systemic GSH insufficiency in these subjects. The most marked GSH decreases occurred in subjects who were asymptomatic but had CD-4 counts below 400. Both the abnormal cytokine expression and the progression to weight loss seen in HIV-1 disease may be linked (at least in part) to abnormalities in the uptake of GSH precursors by immune cells of HIV-1 subjects, and/or to abnormalities in their synthesis of GSH.

GLUTATHIONE AS A DEPIGMENTING AGENT
C. D. Villarama and H. I. Maibach
School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA and
College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Philippines

Glutathione is an ubiquitous compound found in our bodies. Aside from its many ascribed biologic functions, it has also been implicated in skin lightening. We review in vitro and in vivo studies that show evidence of its involvement in the melanogenic pathway and shed light on the its anti-melanogenic effect. Proposed mechanisms of action include: (a) direct inactivation of the enzyme tyrosinase by binding with the copper-containing active site of the enzyme; (b) mediating the switch mechanism from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production; (c) quenching of free radicals and peroxides that contribute to tyrosinase activation and melanin formation; and d) modulation of depigmenting abilities of melanocytotoxic agents. These concepts supported by the various experimental evidence presented form basis for future research in the use of glutathione in the treatment of pigmentary disorders.

Article Source



Glutathione
By Samuel Uretsky Pharm.D.The Gale Group Inc.
   













Description
Glutathione is produced in the human liver and plays a key role in intermediary metabolism, immune response and health, though many of its mechanisms and much of its behavior await further medical understanding. It is also known as gamma-Glutamylcysteineglycine and GHS. It is a small protein composed of three amino acids, cysteine, glutamic acid and glyceine. Glutatione is found in two forms, a monomerthat is a single molecule of the protein, and a dimmer that is two of the single molecules joined together. The monomer is sometimes called reduced glutathione, while the dimmer is also called oxidized glutathione. The monomer is the active form of glutathione. Oxidized glutathione is broken down to the single molecule by an enzyme called glutathione reductase.

Glutathione, in purified extracted form, is a white powder that is soluble in water and in alcohol. It is found naturally in many fruits, vegetables, and meats. However, absorption rates of glutathione from food sources in the human gastrointestinal tract are low.
General use

Glutathione was first isolated in yeast in 1929. Its metabolism in the body was described in 1984, and its role in cancer treatment dates from 1984.

Glutathione is a major antioxidant highly active in human lungs and many other organ systems and tissues. It has many reported uses. It has a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and maintaining the immune system. Higher blood levels of glutathione have been associated with better health in elderly people, but the exact association between glutathione and the aging process has not been determined.

Among the uses that have been reported for glutathione are:

    * treatment of poisoning, particularly heavy metal poisons
    * treatment of idiopathic pulmonary firbosis
    * increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicity of cis-platinum, a chemo drug used to treat breast cancer
    * treating Parkinson's disease
    * lowering blood pressure in patients with diabetes
    * increasing male sperm counts in humans and animals
    * treatment of liver cancer
    * treatment of sickle cell anemia

Claims made about glutathione have included that it will increase energy, improve concentration, slow aging, and protect the skin.

The importance of glutathione is generally recognized, although its specific functions and appropriate clinical use remain under study. Similarly, because ingested glutathione has little or no effect on intracellular glutathione levels, there are questions regarding the optimal method for raising the intracellular levels.

In addition to ongoing studies of the role of glutathione in cancer and cancer therapy, there are currently clinical trials of glutathione in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The U. S. National Cancer Institute has included glutathione in a study to determine whether nutritional factors could inhibit development of some types of cancer.

European researchers, with support from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, are examining the potential uses of inhaled glutathione in cystic fibrosis. Some physicians also use inhaled glutathione in treating airway restriction and asthma. Other studies are investigating whether administration of alpha-lipoic acid, a material that can elevate intracellular glutathione, may be beneficial in restoring the immune system in AIDS patients.

Preparations
Although glutathione is marketed as a nutritional supplement, it does not appear that glutathione supplements actually increase the levels of glutathione inside cells. In human studies, oral doses of glutathione had little effect in raising blood levels. Further, glutathione is so widely distributed in common foods that supplements are not normally required. Supplements of vitamin C are more effective at increasing intracellular glutathione than taking oral glutathione supplements. Oral supplements of whey protein and of alpha-lipoic acid appear to help restore intracellular levels of glutathione.

Glutathione is available as capsules of 50, 100, and 250 milligrams. It is also included in many multivitamin and multi-nutrient formulations.
Precautions

At this time, the only established precautions are sensitivity to any of the inactive ingredients in the preparations of glutathione or the products used to stimulate glutathione levels. This is a discussion of glutathione, not C and whey. There is some new literature that suggests supplementing it may be helpful to some cancer patients, but detrimental to others.
Side effects

There are no established side effects to glutathione or to the substances used to elevate glutathione levels.

BOOKS

Pressman, A. H. Glutathione: the Ultimate Antioxidant. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Rozzorno J. E., J. T. Murray, eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed. Edinborough, Scotland: Churchill Livingston, 1999.
PERIODICALS

Carlo, M. D. Jr, and R. F. Loeser. "Increased oxidative stress with aging reduces chondrocyte survival: correlation with intracellular glutathione levels." Arthritis Rheum (December 2003): 3419–30.

Hamilton D., and G. Batist. "Glutathione analogues in cancer treatment." Curr Oncol Rep (March 2004): 116–22.

Wessner, B., E. M. Strasser, A. Spittler, and E. Roth. "Effect of single and combined supply of glutamine, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, and R, S-alpha-lipoic acid on glutathione content of myelomonocytic cells." Clin Nutr (December 2003): 515–22.

Witschi A., S. Reddy, B. Stofer, and B. H. Lauterburg. "The systemic availability of oral glutathione." Eur J Clin Pharmacol

Wu, G., Y. Z. Fang, S. Yang, J. R. Lupton, and N. D. Turner. "Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health." J Nutr (March 2004): 489–92.

Zenger, F., S. Russmann, E. Junker, C. Wuthrich, M. H. Bui, and B. H. Lauterburg. "Decreased glutathione in patients with anorexia nervosa. Risk factor for toxic liver injury?" Eur J Clin Nutr. (February 2004): 238–43.

ORGANIZATIONS
ALS Therapy Development Foundation. 215 First Street, Cambridge Mass. 02142.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. 6931 Arlington Road, Bethesda MD 20814.
NCCAM Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898.
Samuel Uretsky, Pharm.D.
Source: http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/glutathione

14 July 2010

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